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Newsletter for September 2012
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SERMON 181 OF
The Sermons of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (a)
(Edited by Yasin T. al-Jibouri)
An account of bygone peoples, and learning
“I admonish you, servants of Allah, to fear Allah Who clothed you well and bestowed on you an abundance of sustenance. If there was anyone who could secure a ladder to everlasting life or a way to avoid death, it was Sulayman ibn Dawud (ع) [Solomon son of David] who was given control over the domain of the jinns and men along with Prophethood and a great status with Allah. But when he exhausted his appointed ration (of this world), when his (fixed) term expired, the bow of destruction shot him with an arrow of death. His mansions became vacant and his habitations became empty. Another group of people inherited them. Certainly, the bygone centuries have a lesson for you.
“Where are the Amalekites and the sons of the Amalekites? Where are the Pharaohs? But when his empire in the end was destroyed in a few moments, neither his position nor his servants could come in the way of its destruction, nor could the vastness of his kingdom prevent it. Rather, the waves of the very river of which he was extremely proud, wrapped him in and dispatched his soul to hell, throwing his body on the bank in order to serve as a lesson for all creation. Where are the people of the cities of ar-Rass who killed the prophets, destroyed the traditions of the holy messengers and revived the traditions of the despots? Where are those who advanced with armies, defeated thousands, mobilized forces and populated cities?”
Part of the same sermon about Imam al-Mahdi (عج)
“He will be wearing the amour of wisdom, which he will have secured with all its conditions, such as full attention towards it, (complete) knowledge of and exclusive devotion to it. For him, it is like a thing which he had lost and which he was then seeking, or a need which he was trying to fulfill. If Islam is in trouble, he will feel forlorn like a traveler and like a (tired) camel beating the end of its tail, with its neck flattened on the ground. He is the last of Allah’s proofs and one of the vicegerents of His prophets.”
On the method of his ruling, grieving over the martyrdom of his companions
“O people! I have divulged to you advice which the prophets used to preach to their peoples, and I have conveyed to you what the vicegerents (of the prophets) conveyed for the benefit of those coming after them. I tried to train you with my whip, but you could not be straightened. I drove you with admonition, but you did not acquire proper behavior. May Allah deal with you! Do you want an Imam other than me to take you on the (right) path and show you the correct way? Beware, the things in this world which were forward have become things of the past, and those which were behind are going ahead.
“The virtuous people of Allah have made up their minds to leave, and they have traded, with a little perishable (pleasure) of this world, a lot of such (reward) in the Hereafter that will remain forever. What loss did our brothers, whose blood was shed in Siffin, suffer by not being alive today? Only that they are not suffering from choking on swallowing and not drinking turbid water. By Allah, surely they have met Allah and He has bestowed on them their rewards; He has lodged them in safe houses after their (having suffered) fear.
“Where are my brethren who took the (right) path and trod in righteousness? Where is `Ammar (ibn Yasir)? Where is ibn at-Tayyihan? Where is Dhul-Shahadatayn? And where are others like them from among their comrades who had pledged themselves to remain steadfast till death and whose (severed) heads were taken to the wicked enemy (Mu`awiyah)?”
Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) wiped his hand over his auspicious and honored beard and wept for a long time, then he went on to say:
“O brothers who have recited the Holy Qur’an and strengthened it, thought over their obligation and fulfilled it, revived the Sunnah and destroyed the innovation! When they were called to jihad, they responded and trusted in their leader then followed him.”
Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) shouted the following at the top of his voice:
“Al-Jihad! Al-Jihad! O servants of Allah! By Allah, I am mobilizing the army today. Whoever desires to proceed towards Allah should come forward.”
Nawf says the following: “Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) put Hussain (ع) in charge of (a force of) ten thousand, Qays ibn Sa`d (mercy of Allah be on him) over ten thousand, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari over ten thousand and others over different numbers, intending to return to Siffin. But on Friday, the Imam (ع) did not appear in public again; the damned Ibn Muljim (may Allah curse him) killed him. Consequently, the armies came back and were left like sheep who had lost their shepherd while wolves were snatching them away from all directions.”
`Ammar ibn Yasir ibn Amir al-Madhhaji al-Makhzumi (Madhhaj being an ally of Banu Makhzum) was one of the earliest converts to Islam and the first Muslim to build a mosque in his own house in which he used to worship Allah, as we are told by Ibn Sa`d, Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Part 1, p. 178; Usd al-Ghaba, Vol. 4, p. 46; Ibn Kathir, Tarikh, Vol. 7, p.311.
`Ammar accepted Islam along with his father Yasir and his mother Sumayya. They suffered great atrocities at the hands of the tribesmen of Quraish due to their conversion to Islam to such an extent that `Ammar lost his parents, and they were the first martyrs in Islam.
`Ammar was among those who migrated to Abyssinia and the earliest immigrants (Muhajirun) to Medina. He was present during the Battle of Badr and all other battles as well as places of assembly by the Muslims during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (ص). He demonstrated his mighty support in all Islamic struggles in the best way.
Many traditions are narrated from the Holy Prophet (ص) about `Ammar regarding his virtues, outstanding traits and glorious deeds such as the tradition which `Aisha and others have narrated that the Holy Prophet (ص) himself had said that `Ammar was filled with faith from the crown of his head to the soles of his feet. (Ibn Majah, Sunan, Vol. 1, p. 65; Abu Nu’aym, Hilyat al-Awliya’, Vol. 1, p. 139; al-Haytami, Majma` az-Zawa’id, Vol. 9, p.295; Al-Isti`ab, Vol. 3, p. 1137; Al-Isaba, Vol. 2, p. 512).
In another tradition, the Holy Prophet (ص) said the following about `Ammar:
“`Ammar is with the truth, and the truth is with `Ammar. He turns wherever the truth turns. `Ammar is as close to me as an eye is close to the nose. Alas! A rebellious group will kill him” (Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Vol. 3, part 1, p. 187; Al-Mustadrak, Vol. 3, p. 392; Ibn Hisham, Sira, Vol. 2, p. 143; Ibn Kathir, Tarikh, Vol. 7, pp. 268-270).
Also in the decisive and widely known tradition which al-Bukhari (in his Sahih, Vol. 8, pp. 185-186), at-Tirmithi (in Al-Jami’ lil Sahihain, Vol. 5, p. 669); Ahmed ibn Hanbal (in Al-Musnad, Vol. 2, pp. 161, 164, 206; Vol. 3, pp. 5, 22, 28, 91; Vol. 4, pp. 197, 199; Vol. 5, pp. 215, 306, 307; Vol. 6, pp. 289, 300, 311, 315) and all narrators of Islamic traditions and historians transmitted through twenty-five sahaba, ompanions that the Holy Prophet (ص), said the following about `Ammar:
“Alas! A rebellious group which swerves from the truth will murder `Ammar. `Ammar will be calling them towards Paradise and they will be calling him towards Hell. His killer and those who strip him of arms and clothes will all be lodged in hell.”
Ibn Hajar al-`Aasqalani, in his book Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, Vol. 7, p. 409; Al-Isaba, Vol. 2, p. 512 and al- Sayyuti in Al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, Vol. 2, p. 140 say: “The narration of this tradition is mutawatir (i.e. consecutively reported, that is, narrated successively by so many people that no doubt can be entertained about its authenticity).
Ibn Abdul-Barr, in Al-Isti`ab, Vol. 3, p. 1140, says the following:
“A narration followed uninterrupted succession from the Holy Prophet (ص) says the following: ‘A rebellious group will murder `Ammar,’ and this is a prediction of the Prophet’s knowledge and the sign of his Prophethood. This tradition is among the most authentic and the most rightly ascribed traditions.”
After the death of the Holy Prophet (ص), `Ammar was one of the closest adherents and best supporters of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) during the reign of the first three caliphs. During the caliphate of `Othman, when the Muslim population protested against `Othman’s policy regarding a number of issues, including the distribution of the Public Treasury (baytul-mal), `Othman said at a public assembly, “The money which was in the treasury was sacred and belonged to Allah,” and that he (`Othman) (as successor of the Prophet [ص]) had the right to dispose of it as he deemed fit. He (`Othman) threatened and cursed all those who presumed to censure or murmur at what he said. On this, `Ammar ibn Yasir boldly declared his disapproval and began to charge him with inveterate propensity to ignore the interests of the general public. `Ammar accused `Othman of reviving the pagan customs abolished by the Prophet (ص), whereupon `Othman ordereded him to be beaten. Imediately, some Umayyads, close relatives of the caliph, fell on the venerable `Ammar beating him. `Othman himself kicked `Ammar’s on the testicles, afflicting him with hernia. `Ammar became unconscious for three days and was taken care of by Umm al-Mu’minin [mother of the Faithful] Umm Salamah in her own house. Read more details in these reliable references: al-Baladhiri, Ansab al-`Aashraf, Vol. 5, pp. 48, 54, 88; Ibn Abul-Hadid, Sharh Nahjul-Balagha, Vol. 3, pp. 4752; Al-Imamah wal-Siyasa, Vol. 1, pp. 35-36; Al-`Iqd al-Farid, Vol. 4, p. 307; Ibn Sa`d, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Part 1, p. 185; Tarikh al-Khamis, Vol. 2, p. 271.
When Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) became caliph, `Ammar was one of his most sincere supporters. `Ammar participated fully in all social, political and military activities during this period, especially in the first battle (the Battle of Jamal) and in the second (the Battle of Siffin).
However, `Ammar was martyred on the 9th of Safar, 37 A.H., which coincided on Thursday, July 27, according to the Julian or 30 according to the Gregorian calendar, of the year 657 A.D., in the battle of Siffin when he was over ninety years old. On the day `Ammar ibn Yasir achieved martyrdom, he turned his face to the sky and said the following:
“O Lord! Surely You are aware that if I know that You wish I should plunge myself into this River (the Euphrates) and be drowned, I will do it. O Lord! Surely You know that if I know that You will be pleased if I put my scimitar on my chest (to hit my heart) and press it so hard that it comes out of my back, I will do it. O Lord! I do not think there is anything more pleasant to You than fighting this sinful group... If I knew that any deed at all is more pleasing to You, I will do it.”
Abu Abd ar-Rahman al-Asalami narrates the following:
“We were present with Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) at Siffin when I saw `Ammar ibn Yasir did not turn his face in any direction, or towards any valley of Siffin, except that the companions of the Holy Prophet (ص) were following him as if he was a sign for them. Then I heard `Ammar say the following to Hashim ibn Utbah (al-Mirqal): ‘O Hashim! Rush into the enemy’s ranks, for Paradise is under the shade of the swords! Today, I shall meet the beloved one, Muhammed (ص) and his party.’
“Then he said the following: ‘By Allah! If they put us to fight (and will pursue us) to the date-palms of Hajar (a town in Bahrain [i.e. if they pursue us along all the Arabian desert]), nevertheless, we know for sure that we are right and they are wrong.’
“Then he (`Ammar) continued (addressing the enemies) thus: ‘We struck you so that you may (believe in) its (Holy Qur’an’s) revelation. Today we strike you to (believe in) its interpretation, such a blow as to remove heads from their resting places, to make a friend forget his sincere friend, until the truth returns to its (right) course.’”
The narrator says the following: “I did not see the Holy Prophet’s companions killed at any time as many as they were killed on that day.”
Then `Ammar spurred his horse, entered the battlefield and began fighting. He persistently chased the enemy, launching one attack after another, raising challenging slogans till at last a group of mean-spirited Syrians surrounded him from all sides. A man named Abul-Ghadiyah al-Juhari (al-Fazari) inflicted such a wound on him that `Ammar could not withstand it. `Ammar returned to his camp and asked for water. A tumbler of milk was brought to him. When `Ammar looked at the tumbler, he said the following: “The Messenger of Allah (ص) had said the right thing.” People asked him what he meant by those words. He said, “The Messenger of Allah (ص) informed me that my last sustenance in the life of this world would be milk.” Then he took that tumbler of milk in his hands, drank the milk and surrendered his soul to Allah, the Almighty. When Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) came to know of his death, he came to `Ammar’s side, put his (`Ammar’s) head on his lap and recited the following elegy to mourn his death:
“Surely any Muslim who is not distressed at the killing of the son of Yasir and is not afflicted by this grievous misfortune does not at all have a true faith. May Allah shower His mercy on `Ammar the day he embraced Islam; may Allah shower His mercy on `Ammar the day he was killed, and may Allah shower His mercy on `Ammar the day he is raised to life. Certainly, I found `Ammar (on such a level) that three companions of the Holy Prophet (ص) could not be named unless he was the fourth, nor could four of them be mentioned unless he was the fifth...”
There was none among the Holy Prophet’s companions who doubted this: Not only was Paradise once or twice bestowed on `Ammar, but he gained his claim to it a number of times. May Paradise give enjoyment to `Ammar.
Certainly the following was said by the Holy Prophet (ص): “Surely, `Ammar is with the truth, and the truth is with `Ammar; he turns wherever the truth turns; his killer will certainly be lodged in hell.”
Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) stepped forward and offered the funeral prayers for `Ammar and with his own hands he buried him with his clothes still on.
`Ammar’s death caused a good deal of commotion among the ranks of Mu`awiyah, too. A large number of prominent people there who were fighting on the side of Mu`awiyah were under the impression that they were fighting Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) for a just cause. These people were aware of the saying of the Holy Prophet (ص) that `Ammar would be killed by a group that will be on the wrong track. When they observed that `Ammar had been killed by Mu`awiyah’s army, they became convinced that they were on the wrong track, that Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) was definitely on the right track. This agitation thus caused among leaders as well as in the rank and file of Mu`awiyah’s army was quelled by the latter who argued that it was Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) who brought `Ammar to the battlefield and, therefore, he was the one responsible for `Ammar’s death. When Mu`awiyah’s argument was mentioned before Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع), the Imam said that it was as if the Prophet (ص) was responsible for killing [his brave uncle] Hamzah, since he himself had brought him to the battlefield of Uhud! Here are some references for you if you wish to research it further: al-Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 1, pp. 3316-3322; Vol. 3, pp. 2314-2319; Ibn Sa`d, Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Part 1, pp. 176-189; Ibn al-Athir, Al-Kamil, Vol. 3, pp. 308-312; Ibn Kathir, Tarikh, Vol. 7, pp. 267-272; al-Minqari, Siffin, pp. 320-345; Ibn Abdul-Barr, Al-Isti`ab, Vol. 3, pp. 1135-1140; Vol. 4, p. 1725; Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghaba, Vol. 4, pp. 43-47; Vol. 5, p. 267; Ibn Abul-Hadid, Sharh Nahjul-Balagha, Vol. 5, pp. 252-258; Vol. 8, pp. 10-28; Vol. 10, pp. 102-107, al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, Vol. 3, pp. 384-394; Ibn Abd Rabbih, Al-`Iqd al-Farid, Vol. 4, pp. 340-343; al-Mas`udi, Muruj al-Dhahab, Vol. 2, pp. 381-382, al-Haytami, Majama` az-Zawa’id, Vol. 7, pp. 238-244; Vol. 9, pp. 291-298; al-Baladhiri, Ansab al-Ashraf (in his biography of Amir al-Mu’minin [ع]), pp. 310-319.
Abul-Haytham (Malik) ibn at-Tayyihan al-Ansari was one of the twelve chiefs (naqibs) of the Ansar who attended the event and met at al-Aqabah the first and the second times. It was there and then that he swore the pledge of allegiance to the Holy Prophet of Islam (ص). He was present also during the battle of Badr and all other battles in addition to all places of assembly by the Muslims during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (ص). He was also among the sincere supporters of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) on whose side he fought during the Battles of Jamal and of Siffin where he was martyred; read: Al-Isti`ab, Vol. 4, p. 1773; Siffin, p. 365; Usd al-Ghaba, Vol. 4, p. 274; Vol. 5, p. 318; Al-Isaba, Vol. 3, p. 341; Vol. 4, pp. 312-313; Ibn Abul-Hadid, Vol. 10, pp. 107-108; Ansab al-`Aashraf, p. 319.
Khuzaymah ibn Thabit al-Ansari [who is referred to above] is known as “Dhul-Shahadatayn” (the man with the two testimonials) because the Holy Prophet (ص) considered his testimony to be equivalent to that of two witnesses... He was present in the battle of Badr and in other battles as well as in the places of assembly of the Muslims during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (ص). He is counted among the earliest of those who demonstrated their adherence to Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع). He was also present in the Battles of Jamal and of Siffin. Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abu Layla narrated that he saw a man in the battle of Siffin fighting the enemy valiantly, and when he protested against his deed, the man said the following:
“I am Khuzaymah ibn Thabit al-Ansari. I have heard the Holy Prophet (ص) saying, ‘Fight, fight, on the side of Ali’”, according to al-Khatib (orator) al-Baghdadi, Muwaddih Awham al-Jam` wal-Tafriq, Vol. 1, p. 277.
Khuzaymah was martyred in the battle of Siffin soon after the martyrdom of `Ammar ibn Yasir.
Sayf ibn `Omar al-Usaydi (the well known liar) has fabricated another Khuzaymah and claimed that the one who was martyred in the battle of Siffin was this one and not the one titled “Dhul-Shahadatayn”. Al-Tabari has quoted this fabricated story from Sayf either intentionally or otherwise, and through him this story has affected some other historians who quoted from or relied on al-Tabari. For further reference, see pp. 175-189, Vol. 2, of Khamsun wa mi’at sahabi mukhtalaq [one hundred and fifty fabricated companions] by Sayyid Murtada al-`Askari.
After having rejected this fabrication, Ibn Abul-Hadid adds (in Sharh Nahjul-Balagha, Vol. 10, pp. 109-110) that: “Furthermore, what is the need for those who, in order to defend Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع), boast of an abundance of statements by Khuzaymah, Abul-Haytham, `Ammar and others? If people treat this man (Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib [ع]) with justice and look at him with healthy eyes, they will certainly realize that should he be alone (on one side) and all other people (on the other side) fighting him, he will still be on the side of the truth while all the rest will be wrong”. Here are other references for you: Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Part 1, pp. 185, 188; Al-Mustadrak, Vol. 3, pp. 385, 397; Usd al-Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 114; Vol. 4, p. 47; Al-Isi`ab, Vol. 2, p. 448; al-Tabari, Vol. 3, pp. 2316, 2319, 2401; Al-Kamil, Vol. 3, p. 325; Siffin, pp. 363, 398; Ansab al-`Aashraf, pp. 313-314).
Among the people who were present during the Battle of Jamal on the side of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) were one hundred and thirty Badris (those who participated in the Battle of Badr with the Holy Prophet [ص]) and seven hundred of those who were present in the Pledge of ar-Ridwan (Bay`t al-Ridwan) which took place under a tree (al-Dhahbi, Tarikh al-Islam, Vol. 2, p. 171; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, Tarikh, Vol. 1, p. 164). Those who were killed in the Battle of Jamal from among the supporters of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) numbered about five hundred (some said that the number of martyrs were more than that). But on the side of the people of the Jamal, twenty thousand were killed, as we are told on p. 326, Vol. 4, of Al-`Iqd al-Farid.
Among those who were present in the Battle of Siffin on the side of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع) there were eighty Badris and eight hundred of those who swore to the Holy Prophet (ص) the Pledge of al-Ridwan (Al-Mustadrak, Vol. 3, p. 104; Al-Isti`ab, Vol. 3, p. 1138; Al-Isaba, Vol. 2, p. 389; Tarikh, al-Ya`qubi, Vol. 2, p. 188).
On the side of Mu`awiyah, forty-five thousand were killed, and on the sides of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع), twenty-five thousand. Among these martyrs (from the camp of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib [ع]), there were twenty-five or twenty-six Badris and sixty-three or three hundred and three of the people of the Pledge of ar-Ridwan (Siffin, p. 558; Al-Isti`ab, Vol. 2, p. 389; Ansab al-`Aashraf, p. 322; Ibn Abul-Hadid, Vol. 10, p. 104; Abul-Fida’, Vol. 1, p. 175; Ibn al-Wardi, Tarikh, Vol. 1, p. 240; Ibn Kathir, Vol. 7, p. 275; Tarikh al-Khamis, Vol. 2, p. 277).
Besides the distinguished and eminent companions of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع), such as `Ammar, “Dhul-Shahadatayn” and Ibn al-Tayyihan, those who were martyred in Siffin were:
i.Hisham ibn `Utbah ibn Abu Waqqas al-Mirqal. He was martyred on the same day when `Ammar was martyred. He was the bearer of the standard of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib’s army on that day.
ii. Abdullah ibn Budayl ibn al-Warqa al-Khuza`i. Sometimes, he was the right wing’s commander of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib’s army and sometimes commander of the infantry.
Notes: (Edited on August 7, 2012)
History shows that quite often, the ruin and destruction of peoples has been due to their oppression, open wickedness and profligacy. Consequently, communities which had extended their sway over all corners of the populated world and flown their flags in the east and west of the globe disappeared from the surface of the earth like a wrong word, on disclosure of their vicious actions and evil deeds. The Amalekites were ancient nomadic tribesmen, a group of tribes, described in the Old Testament as relentless enemies of Israel, even though they were closely related to Ephraim, one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Their name is derived from Amalek, who is celebrated in Arabian tradition but cannot be identified. The region over which they ruled extended from southern Judea and probably into northern Arabia. The Amalekites harassed the Hebrews during the latter’s exodus from Egypt, attacking them at Rephidim (near Mt. Sinai), where they were defeated by Joshua. They also filled out the ranks of the nomadic raiders defeated by Gideon and were condemned to annihilation by Samuel. The Amelekites, whose final defeat occurred in the time of Hezekiah, were the object of a perpetual curse. (See The New Encyclopedia Britannica [Micropedia], Vol. 1, p. 288, ed. 1973 - 1974]; also see [for further reference] the Encyclopedia Americana [International Edition], Vol. 1, p. 651, ed. 1975).
“Pharaoh” is a Hebrew word form of the Egyptian “per-Ao”, the great house, signifying the royal palace, an epithet applied in the new kingdom and after, as a title of respect, to the Egyptian king himself. In the 22nd dynasty, this title was added to the king’s personal name. In official documents, the full titulary of the Egyptian king contained five names. The first and the oldest identified him as the incarnation of the falcon god Horus. It was often written inside a square called ‘serekh”, depicting the facade of the archaic palace. The second name, “two ladies”, placed him under the protection of Nekh-bet and Buto, the vulture and Uraeus (snake) goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt. The third, “golden Horus”, originally signified perhaps Horus victorious over his enemies. The last two names, written within a ring or cartouche, are generally referred to as the praenomen and nomen and were the ones most commonly used. The praenomen, preceded by the hieroglyph, meaning “King of Upper and Lower Egypt”, usually contained a reference to the king’s unique relationship with the sun god, Re, while the fifth, or nomen, was preceded by the hieroglyph for “son of Re”, or by that for Master of the Two Lands (perhaps a reference to Egypt and the Sudan). The last name was given to him at birth, the rest at his coronation. For more information, refer to Micropedia section of The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. VII, p. 927, ed. 1973-1974; also see [for further reference] the Encyclopedia Americana, [International Edition], Vol. 21, p. 707, ed. 1975.
Among the Pharaohs was the one who was contemporary to Prophet Musa (ع). His pride, egotism, insolence and haughtiness were such that made him thus claim: “I am your supreme god.” He deemed himself to be holding sway over all other powers of the world. He was confused into misunderstanding that no power could wrest the realm and government from his hands. The Holy Qur’an has narrated his claim of “I and no one else” in the following verse: And Pharaoh proclaimed to his people: O my people! Is not the kingdom of Egypt mine, and these rivers flow below me?! What?! Behold you not?! (Holy Qur’an 43: 51).
Who were the people of the cities of ar-Rass? In the same way as above, the people of ar-Rass were killed and destroyed for disregarding the preaching and the call of their prophet and for their rebellion and disobedience. About them the Holy Qur’an says the following: And the (tribes of) `Ad and Thamud, and the inhabitants of ar-Rass, and generations between them, in great number: To each of them We did give examples and everyone (of them) We did destroy with utter destruction (Holy Qur’an 25: 38,39). Belied (also) before them were the people of Noah and the dwellers of ar-Rass, Thamud, `Aad and Pharaoh, and the brethren of Lot, the dwellers of the Wood and the people of Tubba`; all belied the Messengers, so My promise (of the doom) was proven true (Holy Qur’an 50: 12-14).
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