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Protecting Non-Muslims' Rights
Prophet Muhammad said, "He who unfairly treats a non-Muslim who keeps a peace treaty with Muslims, or undermines his rights, or burdens him beyond his capacity, or takes something from him without his consent; then I am his opponent on the Day of Judgment" [Abu Dawud and Al-Bayhaqi]
The Prophet also said, "He who harms a non-Muslim who keeps a peace treaty with Muslims has harmed me, and he who harms me has harmed Allah" [At-Tabarani in Al-Awsat]
And he said, "He who kills a non-Muslim who keeps a peace treaty with the Muslims will not smell the scent of Heaven, though its scent can be traced to as far as a march of 40 years" [Imam Ahmad and Al-Bukhari in Al-Jizyah]
Where alcoholic drinks and pork cannot be considered as money to Muslims, if a Muslim squanders or spoils such property of another Muslim, he could NOT be called upon for compensation. Yet if a Muslim spoils such assets belonging to a non-Muslim, he would be responsible for compensation. [Imam Abu Hanifah]
Imam Al-Qarafi Al-Maliki once said, "He who transgresses against them (Dhimmis)—even with a mere word of injustice or backtalk— has jeopardized the covenant with Allah and His Prophet and the covenant of the religion of Islam"
[Al-Furuq Part 3, p. 14]
Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab was reported to have seen a senile Jewish man asking for alms, and hence took him to the treasury and authorized a monthly pension for him and the likes of him.
Non-Muslims were permitted to build their own houses of worship under Muslim rule. Two examples of early Islam are the construction of the Mar Marcus Church in Alexandria (between AH 39 and 56), and the construction of the first church in Fustat in the Roman Alley during the reign of Maslamah ibn Mikhled (between the years AH 47 and 68).
The historian Al-Maqrizi once said, "All modern day Cairo churches were undoubtedly restored in Islam."
Imam Al-Mawardi authorized Dhimmis to undertake executive ministries rather than delegate ministries. Executive ministers are those who implement and execute the imam's orders.
During the Abbasid era, Christians undertook the ministry more than once; for example, Nasr ibn Haroun in AH 369 and Eissa ibn Nastorus in AH 380. Mu`awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan had also appointed a Christian clerk named Sarjoun.
"We find it very surprising the abundance of non-Muslim laborers and senior staff within the Muslim state; where Christians governed Muslims in Muslim provinces, and complaints against non-Muslims' seniority in these provinces dates far back"
[Adam Mitz, Islamic Civilization in the Fourth Hijri Century, part 1, p. 105]
Source: Extracted from an article by Massoud Sabri, a researcher in Dar al-`Ulum Collage in Cairo University and an editor in IslamOnline.net, Arabic page, reviewing, Non-Muslims in Muslim Societies: Contemporary Ijtihad The Rights of Non-Muslims in Society: A Reading of Al-Qaradawi Thought.
May Allah Almighty have mercy and guide us all to treating everyone fairly and justly, ameen.
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