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Marjan Hassani Rad
Eid al-Ghadir is the anniversary commemorating the
Prophet Muhammad's - peace be upon him and his progeny -
last instructions to the believers by declaring Hazrat
Ali - upon whom also be peace - his successor and
legatee at Ghadir Khumm.
The occasion was his return from his last pilgrimage to
Mecca which is known in history as 'Hajjat-ul-Wida'.
Prophet Muhammad's last sermon at Ghadir Khumm is an
event celebrated by Shia Muslims worldwide, who regard
it as the confirmation of Hazrat Ali's succession to
This event took place on the 18th of Zil-Hajj, in 632
CE, 3 months before the Prophet Mohammad's demise.
On this day the Prophet Mohammad was ordered by the
Almighty to publicly and officially appoint Imam Ali as
his successor and to seek the Muslims' allegiance for
Ali. He therefore ordered all caravans returning from
Hajj to stop at Ghadir Khumm. As soon as all the
pilgrims were gathered, he revealed Ayah-e Ghadir Khumm
to the people.
The message was: "O Messenger, deliver to the people
what has been revealed to you from your Lord and if you
do not do so then you will not have delivered His
message and Allah will protect you from the people. For
God does not guide those who reject Faith."
Near the end of his blessed life, Prophet Muhammad had
been uneasy. There was a potential for disunity in the
nascent Muslim community. Muhammad declared his own
son-in-law and cousin, Ali ibn Abu Taleb, as his
spiritual and secular heir publicly at God's command.
After declaring Hazrat Ali his successor by raising his
hand and calling him the true leader of Muslims after
himself, Prophet Muhammad called on Muslims to give
allegiance to their Imam. All Muslims declared
allegiance to Imam Ali as the leader of the believers by
congratulating him on this great honor.
The Holy Prophet asked at Ghadir Khumm, "Am I not more
precious to you than your own-selves?"
In response to this question Muslims said "Yes, you are
dearer to us than our own lives."
The Prophet responded with, "O God, be witness to their
admission. Ali is the master of one who acknowledges me
to be his master. O God, love those who love Ali. Help
those who help Ali. Desert those who desert Ali. I am
the city of knowledge and Ali is the gate."
However, after the death of Prophet Mohammad some
Muslims did not observe or adhere to the allegiance that
they had sworn to Imam Ali; some did. Those who did
adhere to Allah's command and obeyed the order of the
Prophet Mohammad became known as the partisans of Ali,
the Eid Ghadir is considered one of the most important
religious celebrations in Iran. Muslims demonstrate
their allegiance great love and respect for Imam Ali.
On this day men, women, and children dress in their
finest clothing to visit their relatives and friends.
During this holiday, Iranian Muslims traditionally visit
the families that are related to the Prophet to assert
allegiance. The "seyyeds" thank them with cookies and
Many young Iranian couples make use of the auspicious
day to wed.
They hope their marriage will remain firm and permanent
with the remembrance of Imam Ali (PBUH).
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