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the Message Continues ... 6/126

 

 

Newsletter for February 2012

 

Article 1 - Article 2 - Article 3 - Article 4 - Article 5 - Article 6 - Article 7 - Article 8 - Article 9 - Article 10 - Article 11 - Article 12

 

 

SHIA-SUNNI UNITY
 By Dr. Shahid Athar M.D.

 

(Clinical Associate Professor of Internal  Medicine and Endocrinology, Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis,
Indiana, and a writer on Islam).

 The centuries-old Shia-Sunni differences are the major obstacle to Muslim unity. The enemies of Islam to their benefit have always
fanned  these differences. Unfortunately, some so-called Muslim scholars on their payroll have also played a key role in keeping
these differences  alive.

 Although I was born into a Sayyid Sunni family, I did not know of many differences while growing up as a child. Our families always
respected  Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) and his parents and participated in ceremonies marking the anniversary of his martyrdom
(the 10th day of  the month of Muharram which is called Ashura) by reciting the first chapter of the Quran (al-Fatihah) and other
chapters and verses of the  Quran and fasted on the ninth and tenth days of that month.

 Now when I give lectures on Islam to non-Muslims, one of the questions  they always ask me is if I am Shia or Sunni. I ask them
if they know  the difference. They have no knowledge, other than what has been  given to them by the media. So they say Shias are the
ones who are  the bad guys, the militant version of Islam, and cause all the trouble  in the Middle East these days.

 These non-Muslim American audiences of mine are surprised to learn that some of the known tyrants like Saddam Hussain and
troublemakers  like the PLO and Hamas are all Sunnis, just as they are surprised to learn that Tariq Aziz ( Iraq 's Foreign Minister)
was Christian and  not a Muslim.

 This is what I say to them about Shi'ites."If Ali Ibn Talib (cousin of Prophet Muhammad) was a Shia, then I am a Shia. If he was a
Sunni,  then I am a Sunni [i.e., a follower of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)].  In Islam there are five recognized schools of Divine Law:
1) Hanafi; 2)  Shafi; 3) Maliki; 4) Hambali and 5) Jafari.

 The first four are called Sunni, and the fifth one, who in addition to following sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), also
follows  those of Ali and consider him as the rightful successor of the Prophet, are called Shia. The first four have many major
theological differences among themselves and according to aChristian friend of  mine, "The only time Sunnis are united is when
they are fighting Shias." Shi'ism started as a political movement (Shia means follower or partisan) to help Ali become successor of
Muhammad (PBUH).

 Around every successful popular figure, there are some admirerswhose own future interests rest with the rise of their leader. Thus
in Indiana , we have "Friends of Lugar Club", who are hoping thatsomeday Senator Richard Lugar will become a US President.
Nationally, we now have a Hillary Rodham Clinton Fan Club with 4,000members! Thus, there were the Followers of Ali Club, which later on
became a political movement. During the initial battles withunbelievers, Ali, the Sword of Islam, was in the forefront and
defeated and killed many of their leaders whose children andgrandchildren, even when they  became Muslims, always remembered who
killed their father (animosity).

 Ali was raised by Prophet Muhammad as a child so he knew Islam verywell. Thus, when he became a judge, his judgments were based on
strict Islamic principles, much to the disappointment of many whoexpected him to be lenient to the rich and powerful. He was so well
respected and trusted by both Caliph Abu Bakr and Umar, that indifficult cases they asked his opinion.

 Nevertheless, I tell my non-Muslim audience that both Shia andSunni have many things in common. They both believe in One God
(Allah), follow the same Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as the lastProphet, offer five daily-prescribed prayers, perform the prescribed
fast in the month of Ramadan, go to Mecca for the pilgrimage (hajj),read the same Quran, and pay the poor-due.

 However, my answers can only satisfy my uninformed non-Muslimaudience. The Sunni brothers, misguided by western propaganda, who
are ready to embrace non-Muslims (especially the white ones), in thepretext of invitation to Islam, will not do so for Shia. They are
ignorant Sunnis. Our job as a missionary should be to invite bothgroups to the true Islam and not chase them out. There is a movement
in the Sunni world to have Shias labeled as disbelievers. I havebeen told that Shaykh Bin Baz of Saudi Arabia has declared an edict
that the meat of the People of Book (Jews and Christians) ispermissible for Sunni Muslims to eat but not the meat slaughtered by
Shias.

 There are scholars on both sides, like Imam Khomeini and Shaykh Shaltut of al-Azhar who have done their best to minimize these
differences and bring unity, but it is not working due to the misinformation prevailing in the common masses of Sunnis about
Shi'ism. Thus I am listing their misconceptions of Shia belief and practices. For answers, I have consulted two Shia scholars in
America.  Dr. A. S. Hashim of Washington and Imam Muhammad Ali Elahi of Detroit .

 Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr wrote to me "to ignore and not waste time in responding to such wrong allegations." He also mentioned
that "a great deal of money and effort is being spent in the last few years to fan the fire of hatred between Shia and Sunni in the
Persian Gulf region with obvious political and economical fruits for powers to-be."
 However, in the interest of Islamic unity, I must deal with the questions rather than shun them. Please note that Imam Jafar (peace
be  upon him), founder of the Shia school of law, was the teacher of Imam  Abu-Hanifa (peace be upon him).

 Misconception #1: Shias have a different Quran. They add another 10 chapters to the original Quran.  

Response: Not true. I have checked many times Quran kept in Shia homes and mosques. I still find it the same as the original Quran. More recently, I took care of an Iranian lady patient hospitalized here. I saw a copy of the Quran by her side. I borrowed it from her and browsed through cover-to-cover. In Arabic it was the same as our Quran. Of course, since I did not know the Persian language, I can't say much about the translation. It is a sin to even say that the Quran can be changed or added to by Shia when God protects it.

 Misconception #2: Some Shia considers Ali as God.

Response: Not true. It is disbelief to even think of such a thing. During the time of Ali, some pagan groups called Gholat did consider Ali as Lord. When he found out, they were burned to death.

 Misconception #3: Shias have different declarations of faith and they add to the call to prescribed prayer.

Response: The declaration to become a Muslim, as administered to non Muslims, is the same. Some Shia add to themselves, "Ali is a friend of God (PBUH) or Ali
is a spiritual leader of God," after the call to prescribed prayer, but not as part of the call to prescribed prayer.

 Misconception #4: Shias do not perform Sunnah prayers. Sunnah prayers are non-obligatory prayers performed by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
Response: Shias do perform non-obligatory prayers, 36 cycles per day in total, but call it Nawafil (extra) and not Sunnah as all of the
Prayers are  Sunnah.

 Misconception #5: Some Shia believes the Angel Gabriel made a mistake  and prophet hood was meant for Ali and not Muhammad (PBUH).
Response:  Not true. No Shia thinks of such false claims. "Only demented minds  think of such questions."

 Misconception #6: Shias slander and ridicule the first three caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman) and Prophet Muhammad's wife, Aisha.  

Response: Shia considers the first three caliphs as companions and  administrators, but not spiritual leaders (Imams). Imam Jafar Sadiq, whose mother and grandmother came from the line of Abu Bakr, said of Abu Bakr, "He gave me birth twice." Aisha is respected by Shias as
the"Mother of Believers," as Ali respected her when he sent her back from Basra to Medina after the Battle of the Camel. If some Shia do
slander the three caliphs and Aisha, they do it out of ignorance and should ask God's forgiveness. (As we have witnessed how Imam Khomeini The Shia bravely declared death of Salman Rushdie -The author of Satanic Verses who abused the wife of Prophet Aisha and Only The Shia Leader declared it as blasphemy, just for his Fatwa the whole western countries became against Iran . See how much price did Shia
pay to  defend Aisha - while Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE etc. etc. as the Sunni  government were silent they did not defend Aisha. Now who
loves Aisha?)

 Misconception # 7: Shias combine all five prayers into one prayer in the evening.

Response: Not true. In Shia mosques, whether in Iran or the USA , all five daily prayers are performed. Shia do combine
noon and afternoon and evening and night, but Shia scholars recommend performing them separately. Such combinations may not be
ideal, but better than not praying at all. How can a Sunni who does not pray at all be better than a Shia who combines prayers?

 Misconception # 8: Shias do not pay zakat (poor-due).

Response: Not true. They not only pay 2.5% left over from savings as zakat, but also an additional 20% as Khums or general charity. However, they prefer to pay directly to the needy, or their grass roots recognized scholars rather than corrupt Sunni, or Shia (The Shah?) governments.

 Misconception #9: Shias practice temporary marriages (Mutah).
Response: Mutah (temporary marriages) was allowed during the time of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and he himself practiced it. Ibn Zubayr was born out of the temporary marriage. Later on Caliph Umar prohibited it due to social reasons as the Islamic world was rapidly expanding.
 Shias discourage Mutah but do not consider it prohibited. Some do abuse this. As a temporary privilege during travel, it is better
than adultery.

 Misconception #10: They consider Imams infallible and above the Prophets.

Response: Not true. All prophets are born Prophet but as
mentioned in Quran about Abraham that after passing the test, a prophet becomes a leader (Imam). Muhammad (PBUH) is the Prophet
(Nabi), Messenger (Rasul) and leader (Imam). Shias consider The Imams as error free carriers of the message of Islam. Shias consider
Ali only as an Imam and not prophet. But his relevance in relation to The Muslim Ummah in particular and the times in which we all
live, his contribution as "carrier" is more relevant than the Prophets before Muhammad whose books are lost, and contributions are
"legendary" at best.. With the little knowledge I have, I have tried to do my best as a Sunni in defending my Shia brothers in Islam with
the hope and prayer to God Almighty that He will "instill love in the heart of the believers" and bring us closer to each other so
that we jointly can fight our common enemy, Satan and his followers.

 May God forgive my mistakes in this article and this book (Amin).

 "Knowledge is better than wealth because it protects you while you have to guard wealth. It decreases if you keep on spending it but
the more you make use of knowledge, the more it increases. What you get through wealth disappears as soon as wealth disappears but what
you achieve through knowledge will remain even after you."

 

 

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