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The Eleventh Imam
Imam Hasan ibne Ali (AS)
by Dr. Syed Haider Husain Shamsi
Epithet: Abu Muhammad
Father: Ali bin Muhammad
Date of Birth: Rabi-ul Akhir 8, 232 AH (December 3,846 AD)
Place of Birth: Madinah
Progeny: From Nargis Khatoon
One son: Muhammad al-Mahdi
Date of Death: Rabi-ul Awwal 8, 260 AH (January 1, 874)
He lived for only 28 years
Place of Death: Samarah
Place of Burial:Samarah
THE TIMES AND LIFE OF IMAM HASAN AL-ASKARI
Imam Hasan (Al-Askari) was bom in Madinah in 232 AH, during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Wathiq. When Mutwakil had his father moved from Madinah to Samarah in 236 AH, he was only four years of age. He suffered deprivation of the patronage of his father, Imam Ali Naqi, owing to the long spells of house arrests and formal prisons. He was only twenty-two years of age at the martyrdom of his father in 254 AH. He took up the responsibilities of Imamate according to the declaration that his father had made in Madinah eighteen years earlier.
During the life of his father, he endured the reign of terror under Mutwakil followed by the chain of several caliphs until the martyrdom of his father. There was much oppression and persecution of the Alkyds during those years, and the Imam had to remain in hiding. He used to communicate with his followers only through his most reliable representatives. During the next five and a half years, he saw the caliphate change hands twice. Muhtadi succeeded the Caliph Mutazz in 255 AH, followed by the Caliph Mu'tarnid in 256 AH.
Just as Umar bin Abd al-Aziz was the only benevolent caliph from the Umayyad dynasty, Muhtadi was perhaps the ordy caliph in the chain of the Abbasids who could also be called benevolent. However, the rule of Muhtadi last for less than one year, and the hnam saw a brief period of reprieve during his reign. Not withstanding the urgency to have an heir, the Imam married Nargis Khatoon. There was a general air of uneasiness about this. A rumor was circulating that the awaited Mahdi would be bom from this union. The Imam was twenty four years of age at that time.
The rule of tyranny returned with the Caliph Mu'tamid. He was a stonehearted ruler who took pleasure in having people beheaded for trivial faults. He had the Imam placed in a formal prison under strict isolation. He had instructed the wardens to inflict torture to the Imam. However, when they went to carry out the Caliph's orders, they found the Imam either in prayers or reading the Quran. He rotated several prison wardens with the intention to inflict harm to the Imam, but faded in his HI-destined schemes. Most of these wardens became followers and devotees of the Imam.
Despite the difficulties imposed upon the Imam, he continued to receive deputations from his devotees from far and wide, and he continued to serve the followers with the true values of Islam through the meanings and interpretations of the Qur'an and his personal conduct of life. Many senior and older followers of the Imam attended his sittings and clarified many questions about the Quran and the Hadith. Seeing that there would be a continued need for correct interpretation of the Qur'an, he took up the project of writing, a comprehensive commentary of the Qur'an before he passed away.
The Caliph finally prevailed and had the Imam martyred with poison in the year 260 AH. He sent a team of his trusted physicians to ensure the condition of the Imam and to certify his death before his burial. Having thus completed the assignment as ordered by the Caliph, the body of the Imam was laid to rest in the same house where he had died. He was buried in the same room where his father had died and was buried.
Contrary to the previously established tradition, the Imam did not announce the name or the identity of his successor, although there was some evidence that he had left a four-year-old heir to the Imamate. As expected, there was considerable doubt and confusion among the followers regarding the continuation of the series of Imamate after the death of the Eleventh Imam. The Aliyyids were in revolt in the empire at the time, and some were claiming to be the Awaited One, the Twelfth Imam contacted his followers through his safirs for their guidance.
REFLECTIONS FROM THE LIFE OF IMAM HASAN AL-ASKARI
The Imam obtained his title of al-Askari because of his residence in the garrison precinct of the Samarah. He was able to communicate with people in their mother-tongues as he was fluent in several languages that were spoken in the empire at the time.
The Imam participated in many debates and contests held by the Caliph in an attempt to slight his dignity. But instead, the Imam shone like full moon in the dark night of ignorance.
Despite the short span of his life that was available to his followers, he left many, respected students who continued to write and carry out researches in the path of the Truth.
1.He told his followers:
-Be obedient to Allah, keep adherence to the practice of your Faith, never tell lies, keep the trust of some one who has placed it with you, keep good relations with your neighbors, prolong your sajdah in prayers.
-Life is but a short span and the end comes suddenly. One who plants the seedling of good, would reap an enormous harvest of reward. One who plants a seedling of mischief, would reap the fruit of bitterness, shame and regret.
-Being Thankful to Allah brings rewards of His great benevolence.
2. He told one of his companions:
-Trust in Allah and keep steadfast in your prayers.
-Never refrain from paying the poor dues, lest your prayers go waste.
-Repent for your sins.
-Do not give in to anger.
-Be charitable towards your brethren, in plenty and in deprivation.
Show forbearance to peoples' ignorance.
-Ponder on ordinances of Faith.
-Forever remain within the circle of the Qur'an. -Guide others to the Truth when you have found it.
1. Do not indulge in unnecessary discussion with people lest you lose your respect. Do not indulge in too much humor with people lest they pick up courage to slight you.
2. It is among good manners to wish well to someone who passes you by. When in a communal gathering, do not look for a high place for yourself
3. It is ill manners to express happiness to someone who is grieved by some event.
4. That person Is most cautious who pauses at place of suspicion. That person is most reliable who fulfills his commitments. That person is most pious who exercises avoidance of all forbidden things. That person is performing the hardest Jehad who is committed to avoid sin.
5. The provisions that are a promise from the Lord, are rewards earned by fulfilling the duties of obedience.
6. One who renders advice to a fellow momin on his fault away from the public eye, has decorated him; but one who does so in the open, has in fact stripped him.
7. Every thing has a limit, you would harm yourself if you exceed it.
8. One who has built relation with the Allah, loves solitude.
9. Do not choose a method of respect to someone by which his feelings would be hurt.10. It is no less than a miracle to teach an idiot or to break the habit of an addict.
The Commentary on Holy Qur'an By Imam Hasan Askari
As the grip of the rulers tightened and degree of suppression of the Imams increased, it became harder and harder for the followers to gain access to him to obtain direct guidance. Since most of the questions asked used to be on the interpretation and expounding the meanings of the Book of Allah, the Imam found it necessary to have this material committed to his pen. This was collected in the form of a book known as the " Tafseer-e Askari. "The book that is available today is incomplete, as it does not cover the Qur'an in its entirety. It is possible that several sections of it were lost or destroyed due to many turmoils the world of Islam had endured with time. It is possible that the Imam had only a limited time to have such a mammoth task completed before his martyrdom. It is also possible that he had given lectures and interpretations to some of the learned students and entrusted them to complete the task after him, and in turn they were also eliminated by the tyrants of the time. However, what is available today, reveals the enormity of the rich language and the depths of the meanings extracted from the verses of the Qur’an. Besides a book of learning, it is a beautiful piece of literature attributed to the eleventh pillar of the Ahle Bait for the devotees to relish and to benefit from.
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