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Newsletter for October 2016
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Khums, the Fund of Independence of Bayt Al-Mal
ByAyatullah Naser Makarem Shirazi
Purpose of the Objectors
Some people try hard for proving two issues: one of them is the issue of un necessity of Taqlid (following in religious rulings) and the other is the issue of un necessity of Khums, and we can see clearly that matter has gone far from scientific discussions and has formed into brawling and demagoguism and we know that whenever a discussion goes far from the scientific form and enters into this kinds of paths, surly there are some news behind the curtains and other purposes has made that.
Evidences show that this group has began to fight with these two issues with a calculated plan, because they see that until spiritual leadership of society is performed by great Islamic scholars and Shiite Maraje’ (pl. of Marja’, person whom others follow him in rulings) and they have financial independence added to their deep influence in society, they are not capable of executing their evil plans for destroying the Islamic beliefs of people and nations, and at this moment they have chosen two sensitive points:
First point is the issue of Taqlid which according to that each Muslim should be either Mujahid (Islamic scholar who is engaged in several Islamic fields of knowledge) or refer to a Mujtahid in matters about Islamic rulings and follow his orders.
They assumed that if they cut this scientific and spiritual relationship between people and religious leaders by poisoning in the issue of Taqlid, they can easily destroy the thoughts of people and until this relationship is connected penetration of them is very hard.
Therefore, they invite people to disconnect this connection explicitly in some booklets, while we know that the issue of referring to knowledgeable persons is from self evident matters in all aspects of life and any person refers to knowledgeable persons in daily life in medical, architectural, pharmaceutical and other matters and also according to this fact if a person cannot understand Islamic matters from Qur"an and tradition by himself/herself, refers to a scholar.
But they have arisen against this self evident matter for providing their own profits and invite people to disconnect any scientific relation with their spiritual leaders.
Another matter that they have chosen is the issue of Khums and how calculated and planned they have chosen that.
Because we know that the share of Imam which is half of Khums is the financial fund of Shiite seminaries and propagation plans and cultural activities and briefly any religious of scientific activity which needs money; If oppositions of Shi’aa can prevent people from paying Khums and share of Imam by their poisoning, then they can reach one of their goals which is weakening our seminaries or changing their path.
In more clear way, existence of this Islamic order and act of some Muslims to that caused the complete independence of spiritual seminaries and scientific and propagating programs, because we know that the first condition of independence of an organization is its financial independence and this matter executed well in the world of Shi’aa by this Islamic order while the society of Sunni scholar has missed its independence because of ignorance of this order.
Especially, on one great Sunni scholars from Syria who had visited Qom seminary and also other different religious institutions in other cities, had been amazed that how the costs of these programs are provided, and when he noticed to the issue of Khums and share of Imam in programs of Shi"aa, he impressed so much that in return to his country one of his advices to his friends was to pay the Khums.
It is wonderful that others wish to execute these programs and achieve this great privilege which is complete independence in religious programs by them, but obstinate despiteful persons insist on taking this privilege from us.
But, they should know that lots of people have informed about this conspiracy and have known about their evil purposes, and accordingly it seems so unlikely that they can achieve their goals, and their fiasco can be predicted by now, and their plan is like a drawing on the water!
The issue of Khums has only been mentioned once in holy Qur"an (and also it is not only Khums which has been mentioned in one verse, but there are lots of rulings of Qur"an which have been mentioned only once in Qur"an and there is no doubt that, this one time expression is enough). And that is verse 41 of Sura Anfal:
وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ آمَنْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to Allah,- and to the Messenger, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer,- if ye do believe in Allah and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Testing,- the Day of the meeting of the two forces. For Allah hath power over all things. (8:41)
Important matter which should be noticed in this verse and in fact all the issue concentrates on it is that does the advantage which has been mentioned in this verse only consist of spoils of war or expands to any kind of income.
In the first form, this verse only expresses the spoils of war and for Khums of other things we should use tradition, news and correct and reliable cabbalas and there is no problem in that Qur"an points to a part of ruling in proportion and other parts express in tradition.
For example, quintet daily prayer has been mentioned explicitly in holy Qur’an, and also it has been pointed to the prayer of Tawaf (circumambulate the Ka’ba) which is one of obligatory prayers, but nothing has been mentioned about Ayaat (signs) prayer which is agreed by all Muslim, Shiites and Sonnies, and Ghazaa prayer and like them; and we cannot find anyone who says because Ayaat prayer has not been mentioned in Qur’an and it is only available in tradition of Prophet (S) should not be performed, or because it has been pointed to some Ghusls (full ablution) in Qur"an and nothing has been said about some other Ghusls, therefore we should abstain from them. This is a logic which no Muslim accepts.
Therefore, there is no problem that Qur"an has expressed only a part of cases of Khums and has leaved the others to tradition, and there are lots of issues like this in Islamic Fiqh and those who know even a little about issue of Fiqh have understood this matter completely; but we should find that what the meaning of advantage (غنیمت) literally and in commonsense is.
Indeed, is it exclusive to spoils of war or it consists of any kind of income?
The definition which derives from dictionaries is that in the literal root of this word there is nothing about war or the things which is gained from enemy, but it consists of any kind of income. We refer to some parts of famous dictionaries as evidence which are all accepted by Arab scientist and litterateurs:
We read in the book “Lisan Al-Arab” (Tongue of Arab), vol. 12:
و الغنم: الفوز بالشّىء من غیر مشقّة و... الغنم،الغنیمة و المغنم، الفىء... و فى الحدیث الرّهن لمن رهنه له غنمه و علیه غرمه، غنمه زیادته و نمائه و فاضل قیمته... و غنم الشّىء غنما: فاز به
“غنم” means gaining a thing without any hardship and “غنم”, “غنیمت” (advantage) and “مغنم” are all in the meaning of “فیء” (and also “فیء” has been meant literally as the things which reach a person without labor …) and it has been said in Hadith that pawn is for the person who has taken that pawn and its advantage (غنیمت) and benefit is for him, and also its compensation and loss is for him, and “غنم” means the excess, growth and surplus of the price … he take that as an advantage (غنیمت) means that he gained that …
And we read in the book “Taj Al-Arous” (the bride’s brown), vol. 9:
والغنم الفوز بالشیء بلا مشقّة!
Advantage (غنیمت) is the thing that person gains without hardship!
And also in the book “Al-Qamoos” it has been mentioned with the same meaning.
And in the book “Mufradat” by Ragheb “غنیمت” has been said to be derived from the root “غنم” in the meaning of “sheep” and then it says:
ثم استعمل فى کل مظفور به من جهة العدى و غیرهم
Then it has been used in all things which person gains from enemy or non-enemy.
Even persons who consider one of the definitions of “غنیمت” as spoils of war do not deny that its main meaning is more expanded which implies to all things that a person can gain without hardship.
In common use advantage “غنیمت” is used against Fine “غرامت” and as the meaning of fine is an expanded meaning and consists of any kind of fine, also advantage “غنیمت” has an expanded meaning and implies to any kind of notable income.
has been used in many cases in
Take advantage from opportunities.
And we read in sermon 120:
مَنْ اَخَذَ بِها لَحِقَ وَ غَنِمَ
Person who acts as the religion of Allah finds happiness and takes advantages.
And he says in letter 53 to Malik Ashtar:
وَ لا تَکُونَنَّ عَلَیْهِمْ سَبُعاً ضارِیاً تَغْتَنِمُ اَکْلَهُمْ
Do not be like a cruel animal against people of Egypt in the way that consider eating them as an advantage غنیمت” and a kind of income for yourself!
And he says in letter 45 to Osman ibn Hanif:
فَوَ الله ما کَنَزْتُ مِنْ دُنْیاکُم تِبْرأَ وَلا اَدَّخَرْتُ مِنْ غَنائِمِها وَفْراً
I swear to Allah that I did reserve no gold from your world, and I did no saving from its advantages or incomes!
And it is in quotes, in sentence 331:
اِنَّ الله سُبْحانَهُ جَعَلَ الطّاعَةَ غَنِیمَةَ الاْکْیاسِ
Indeed pure Allah has made obedience as advantage and benefit of tactful people.
And we read in letter 31:
وَ اغْتَنِمْ مَنِ اسْتَقْرَضَکَ فى حَالِ غِناکَ
If a person asks you for a loan when you are rich, consider this as an advantage "غنیمت "
And there are lots of expressions like these.
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