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Newsletter for January 2011
The Islamic and Christian views of Jesus: a comparison
person of Jesus or Isa in Arabic (peace be upon him) is of great
significance in both Islam and Christianity. However, there are
differences in terms of beliefs about the nature and life
occurrences of this noble Messenger.
Source of information about Jesus in Islam
Most of the Islamic information about Jesus is actually found in
The Quran was revealed by God to Prophet Muhammad (peace and
blessings be upon him), and memorized and written down in his
lifetime. Today, anyone who calls him or herself a Muslim
believes in the complete authenticity of the Quran as the
original revealed guidance from God.
Source of information about Jesus in Christianity
Christians take their information about Jesus from the Bible,
which includes the Old and New Testaments.
These contain four biblical narratives covering the life and
death of Jesus. They have been written, according to tradition,
respectively by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. They are placed at
the beginning of the New Testament and comprise close to half of
Encyclopedia Britannica notes that none of the sources of his
life and work can be traced to Jesus himself; he did not leave a
single known written word. Also, there are no contemporary
accounts written of his life and death. What can be established
about the historical Jesus depends almost without exception on
Christian traditions, especially on the material used in the
composition of the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke, which
reflect the outlook of the later church and its faith in Jesus.
Below are the views of Islam and Christianity based on primary
source texts and core beliefs.
1. Do Muslims believe he was
a Messenger of One God? YES
Belief in all of the Prophets and Messengers of God is a
fundamental article of faith in Islam. Thus, believing in
Prophets Adam, Jesus, Moses, and Muhammad (peace and blessings
be upon them) is a requirement for anyone who calls him or
herself a Muslim. A person claiming to be a Muslim who, for
instance, denies the Messengership of Jesus, is not considered a
The Quran says in reference to the status of Jesus as a
"The Messiah (Jesus), son of Mary, was no more than a Messenger
before whom many Messengers have passed away; and his mother
adhered wholly to truthfulness, and they both ate food (as other
mortals do). See how We make Our signs clear to them; and see
where they are turning away!"
2. Do Muslims believe he was
born of a Virgin Mother? YES
Like Christians, Muslims believe Mary, Maria in Spanish, or
Maryam as she is called in Arabic, was a chaste, virgin woman,
who miraculously gave birth to Jesus.
"Relate in the Book the story of Mary, when she withdrew from
her family, to a place in the East. She screened herself from
them; then We sent to her Our spirit (angel Gabriel) and he
appeared before her as a man in all respects. She said: I seek
refuge from you in God Most Gracious (come not near) if you do
fear God. He said: Nay, I am only a Messenger from your Lord, to
announce to you the gift of a pure son. She said: How shall I
have a son, when no man has ever touched me, and I am not
unchaste? He said: So it will be, your Lord says: ‘That is easy
for Me; and We wish to appoint him as a sign unto men and a
Mercy from Us': It was a matter so decreed"
3. Do Muslims believe Jesus
had a miraculous birth? YES
The Quran says:
"She (Mary) said: ‘O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man
has touched me.' He (God) said: ‘So (it will be) for God creates
what He wills. When He has decreed something, He says to it
only: ‘Be!'- and it is"
It should also be noted about his birth that:
"Verily, the likeness of Jesus in God's Sight is the likeness of
Adam. He (God) created him from dust, then (He) said to him:
‘Be!'-and he was"
4. Do Muslims believe Jesus
spoke in the cradle? YES
"Then she (Mary) pointed to him. They said: ‘How can we talk to
one who is a child in the cradle?' He (Jesus) said: ‘Verily! I
am a slave of God, He has given me the Scripture and made me a
5. Do Muslims believe he
performed miracles? YES
Muslims, like Christians believe Jesus performed miracles. But
these were performed by the will and permission of God, Who has
power and control over all things.
"Then will God say: ‘O Jesus the son of Mary! recount My favor
to you and to your mother. Behold! I strengthened you with the
Holy Spirit (the angel Gabriel) so that you did speak to the
people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught you the
Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel. And behold: you make
out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My leave, and
you breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by My leave, and you
heal those born blind, and the lepers by My leave. And behold!
you bring forth the dead by My leave. And behold! I did restrain
the children of Israel from (violence to you) when you did show
them the Clear Signs, and the unbelievers among them said: ‘This
is nothing but evident magic'
6. Do Muslims believe in the
Muslims believe in the Absolute Oneness of God, Who is a Supreme
Being free of human limitations, needs and wants. He has no
partners in His Divinity. He is the Creator of everything and is
completely separate from His creation.
God says in the Quran regarding the Trinity:
"People of the Book (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the
limits in your religion, and attribute to God nothing except the
truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was only a Messenger of
God, and His command that He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit
from Him. So believe in God and in His Messengers, and do not
say: ‘God is a Trinity.' Give up this assertion; it would be
better for you. God is indeed just One God. Far be it from His
glory that He should have a son. To Him belongs all that is in
the heavens and in the earth. God is sufficient for a guardian"
7. Do Muslims believe that
Jesus was the son of God? NO
"Say: "God is Unique! God, the Source [of everything]. He has
not fathered anyone nor was He fathered, and there is nothing
comparable to Him!"
The Quran also states:
"Such was Jesus, the son of Mary; it is a statement of truth,
about which they vainly dispute. It is not befitting to the
majesty of God, that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him!
When He determines a matter, He only says to it, ‘Be' and it is"
8. Do Muslims believe Jesus
was killed on the cross then resurrected? NO
“They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, but they
thought they did.”
“God lifted him up to His presence. God is Almighty, All-Wise”
Christians believe Jesus was a human being and Messenger of God?
YES & NO
With the exception of Unitarian Christians, who like all the
early followers of Jesus, still do not believe in the Trinity,
most Christians now believe in the Divinity of Jesus, which is
connected to the belief in Trinity. They say he is the second
member of the Triune God, the Son of the first part of the
Triune God, and at the same time "fully" God in every respect.
2. Do Christians believe he
was born of a Virgin Mother? YES
A chaste and pious human woman who gave birth to Jesus Christ,
the second member of the Trinity, the Son of God, and at the
same time "fully" God Almighty in every respect.
Christians believe however, that while she was a virgin, she was
married to a man named Joseph (Bible: Matthew:1:18). According
to Matthew 1:25, Joseph "kept her a
virgin until she gave birth to a Son; and he called His name
3. Do Christians believe he
had a miraculous birth? YES
"Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows. When His mother
Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together,
she was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit"
(Bible: Matthew 1:18)
4. Do Christians believe he
performed miracles? YES
"And now, Lord, look upon their threats, and grant to thy
servants to speak thy word with all boldness, while thou
stretches out thy hand to heal, and sign and wonders are
performed through the name of thy holy servant Jesus"
(Bible: Acts 4:30).
Christians believe that Jesus performed these miracles because
he was the Son of God as well as the incarnation of God.
5. Do Christians believe in
the Trinity? YES
With the exception of the Unitarian Christians, who do not
believe in the Divinity of Christ, the Trinity, according to the
Catholic encyclopedia, is the term used for the central doctrine
of the Christian religion. The belief is that in the unity of
the Godhead there are Three Persons, the Father, the Son, and
the Holy Spirit. These three Persons or beings are distinct from
each another, while being similar in character: uncreated and
The First Vatican Council has explained the meaning to be
attributed to the term mystery in theology. It lays down that a
mystery is a truth which we are not merely incapable of
discovering apart from Divine Revelation, but which, even when
revealed, remains "hidden by the
veil of faith and enveloped, so to speak, by a kind of darkness"
(Const., "De fide. cath.", iv). The First Vatican Council
further defined that the Christian Faith contains mysteries
strictly so called (can. 4). All theologians admit that the
doctrine of the Trinity is of the number of these. The Catholic
Encyclopedia notes that of all revealed truths, this is the most
impenetrable to reason.
6. Do Christians believe that
Jesus was the son of God? YES
"For God so loved the world that He gave His only Son that
whoever believes in Him should not perish but have eternal life.
For God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world,
but that the world might be saved through Him"
(Bible: John 3:16).
However, it is interesting to note that the term "son of God" is
used in other parts of the Bible to refer to
Adam (Bible: Luke 3:38),
Israel (Bible: Exodus 4:22)
and David (Bible: Psalms 2:7)
as well. The creatures of God are usually referred to in the
Bible as children of God.
The role of Paul of Tarsus in
shaping this belief and the belief in Trinity
The notion of Jesus as son of God is something that was
established under the influence of Paul of Tarsus (originally
named Saul), who had been an enemy of Jesus, but later changed
course and joined the disciples after the departure of Jesus.
Later, however, he initiated a number of changes into early
Christian teachings, in contradiction, for instance, to
disciples like Barnabas, who believed in the Oneness of God and
who had actually lived and met with Jesus.
Paul is considered by a number of Christian scholars to be the
father of Christianity due to his additions of the following
that Jesus is the son of God,
the concept of Atonement,
the renunciation of the Law of the Torah.
Paul did these things in hopes of winning over the Gentiles
(non-Jewish people). His letters are another of the primary
sources of information on Jesus according to the Christian
The original followers of Prophet Jesus opposed these blatant
misrepresentations of the message of Jesus. They struggled to
reject the notion of the Divinity of Jesus for close to 200
One person who was an original follower of Jesus was Barnabas.
He was a Jew born in Cyrus and a successful preacher of the
teachings of Jesus. Because of his closeness to Jesus, he was an
important member of the small group of disciples in Jerusalem
who had had gathered together following the disappearance of
The question of Jesus's nature, origin and relationship with God
was not raised amongst Barnabas and the small group of
disciples. Jesus was considered a man miraculously endowed by
God. Nothing in the words of Jesus or the events in his life led
them to modify this view.
The Gospel of Barnabas was accepted as a Canonical Gospel in the
Churches of Alexandria till 325 CE Iranaeus (130-200) wrote in
support of pure monotheism and opposed Paul for injecting into
Christianity doctrines of the pagan Roman religion and Platonic
philosophy. He quoted extensively from the Gospel of Barnabas in
support of his views. This indicates that the Gospel of Barnabas
was in circulation in the first and second centuries of
In 325 (CE), a council of Christian leaders met at Nicaea and
made Paul's beliefs officially part of Christian doctrine. It
also ordered that all original Gospels in Hebrew script which
contradicted Paul's beliefs should be destroyed. An edict was
issued that anyone in possession of these Gospels would be put
The Gospel of Barnabas has miraculously survived though.
7. Do Christians believe he was killed on the cross? YES
This is a core Christian belief and it relates to the concept of
atonement. According to this belief, Jesus died to save mankind
from sin. However, this is not stated explicitly in the four
gospels which form the primary source texts of Christianity. It
is found, however, in Romans 6:8,9.
Christians believe Jesus was spat on, cut, humiliated, kicked,
striped and finally hung up on the cross to endure a slow and
According, to Christian belief, the original sin of Adam and Eve
of eating from the forbidden tree was so great that God could
not forgive it by simply willing it, rather it was necessary to
erase it with the blood of a sinless, innocent Jesus.
The four Gospels and the Epistles of St. Paul are the main
sources of Christianity which discuss the Resurrection of Jesus
after his crucifixion. According to St. Matthew, Jesus appeared
to the holy women, and again on a mountain in Galilee. Mark's
Gospel tells a different story: Jesus was seen by Mary
Magdalene, by the two disciples at Emmaus, and the Eleven before
his Ascension into heaven.
Luke's Gospel says Jesus walked with the disciples to Emmaus,
appeared to Peter and to the assembled disciples in Jerusalem.
In John's Gospel, Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene, to the ten
Apostles on Easter Sunday, to the Eleven a week later, and to
seven disciples at the Sea of Tiberias.
Another account of the resurrection by St. Paul is found in
Bible: Corinthians 15: 3-8.
According to Christian belief, Resurrection is a manifestation
of God's justice, Who exalted Christ to a life of glory, as
Christ had humbled himself unto death (Phil., 2: 8-9). This
event also completes the mystery of Christian salvation and
redemption. The death of Jesus frees believers from sin, and
with his resurrection, he restores to them the most important
privileges lost by sin (Bible: Romans 4:25).
More importantly, the belief in the resurrection of Jesus indicates Christian acknowledgment of Christ as the immortal God, the cause of believers' own resurrection (Bible: I Corinthians 4: 21; Phil., 3:20-21), as well as the model and the support of a new life of grace (Bible: Romans 4: 4-6; 9-11).
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